The Greeks had but four cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, temperance, and courage (or fortitude). To this, many centuries later, the Catholic church (notably Aquinas) added three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity (or love). These are the seven basic virtues of Western culture. But they’re not the only ones.
In 410 CE, Aurelius Clemens Prudentius listed seven ‘heavenly’ virtues in his religious poem, Psychomachia: chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility.
Writing in the New York Times recently, David Brooks said.
It occurred to me that there were two sets of virtues, the résumé virtues and the eulogy virtues. The résumé virtues are the skills you bring to the marketplace. The eulogy virtues are the ones that are talked about at your funeral — whether you were kind, brave, honest or faithful. Were you capable of deep love?
Brooks adds: “Many of us are clearer on how to build an external career than on how to build inner character.”
In that sense we have two ‘resume’ virtue lists: the one we present to others, make an ostensible show of and tell people these are the virtues we pursue, even when we do not – and hope these become our eulogy list. And we have a private list of virtues we know we actually believe in, we actually practice in daily life.
But what are those virtues? Are they the four, the seven, or are there more?
Buddhists have two, intertwined lists of virtues. The first is the eightfold path:
- Right view
- Right intention
- Right speech
- Right action
- Right livelihood
- Right effort
- Right mindfulness
- Right concentration
The second list of ten virtues comes from the Natha Sutta:
- Sila: good conduct; keeping moral habits;
- Bahusutta: great learning;
- Kalyana mitta: good company; association with good people;
- Sovacassata: amenability to correction; meekness; easy admonishability;
- Kingkaraniyesu Dakkhata; willingness to give a helping hand; diligence and skill in managing all the affairs of one’s fellows in the community;
- Dhammakamata; love of truth;
- Viriyarambha; energy; effort; energetic exertion; making effort; being industrious in avoiding and abandoning evil actions, and cultivating the good;
- Santutthi; contentment;
- Sati; mindfulness; the ability to remember what one has done and spoken;
- Panna; wisdom; insight.
There are other sutras that list Buddhist virtues (also called perfections, or paramitas) like the Ten Perfections of the Buddhavamsa and the Six Perfections of the Lotus Sutra, but they are essentially the same list as above.
On the virtuescience page, 119 virtues are listed, including wonder, thrift, thankfulness, respect, responsibility, sobriety, loyalty, honesty, generosity and discretion. A similar, list can be found on virtuesforlife and similar sites (such as the wikiversity site). In the one-upmanship often found online, there are even longer lists (up to around 160) with terms like prayerfulness, resilience, health, beauty and assertiveness.
Are all of these really virtues? Or merely attributes or qualities: behavioral traits? That depends on how you define virtue.
Loyalty, for example, is relative: like beauty, it is in the eye of the beholder. Loyalty is only a virtue in someone else if they are on the same side or in the same party as you are. It’s a vice in others of different political, religious or cultural beliefs. History is replete with cases of blind loyalty where it was a character flaw, not a virtue. Think of the SS or the Soviet commissars in WWII, the Red Guard in Mao’s Cultural Revolution. None of the victims would consider their loyalty a virtue. Loyalty to a small cause can equally be disloyalty to the greater good.
Continue reading “How Many Virtues?”
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