Unless otherwise noted, all quotations from The Prince used in this book are from the W. K. Marriott translation, available in the public domain.
Selections from The Prince are not always used verbatim. Wording and grammar from public domain quotes are often modified for clarity or modernity. In particular I used the Constantine and Bull translations most when looking for appropriate alternate wording.
Sources for other quotations include The Discourses (Ninian Hill Thomson translation), The Art of War (trans. Henry Neville, 1675), Sun Tzu’s Art of War (Giles translation), Han Fei Tzu (Burton Watson translation), The 48 Laws of Power, by Robert Greene. Details follow.
All of these books are in my own library – there are others available on Machiavelli, but I cannot claim to have read or quoted from them.
Books by Machiavelli
The Prince. I own many editions of this book, including translations by:
- Tim Parks (Penguin Classics, London, UK, 2011; a very modern version);
- Peter Bondanella (Oxford University Press, London 2008; revised version of his 1979 translation in The Portable Machiavelli);
- Peter Constantine (Modern Library, New York, USA, 2008);
- George Bull (Penguin Classic edition, London, England, 1981, revised edition 1999);
- Harvey C. Mansfield (University Of Chicago Press; 2nd edition, Chicago, USA, 1998);
- William J. Connell (Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, Boston, USA, 2005);
- Russell Price (ed. by Quentin Skinner, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1988)
- Daniel Donno (Bantam Books, New York, USA, 1966, reissued 1984, 2003);
- Luigi Ricci (Modern Library, New York, USA, 1950);
- Robert Adams (Norton Critical Edition, New York, USA, 1977);
- W. K. Marriot, 1908 (Sterling books edition, reprinted 2008; this translation is also sold in many bargain book editions);
- Ninian Hill Thomson, 1883 (Capstone Edition, West Sussex, England, 2010, introduction by Tom Butler-Bowden);
- Edward Dacres, 1640 (from Machiavelli, Volume 1, Project Gutenberg www.gutenberg.org. Contains two archaic translations of his works);
- Wayne Rebhorn (Barnes & Noble Classics, New York, USA, 2003);
- David Wooton (Hackett Publishing, Indianapolis, USA, 1995)
- Henry Neville (Google Books, 1720 edition, trans. 1674, London, UK)
- J. Scott Byerley (Google Books, London, UK, 1810)
Other translations are available. Differences between translations are generally more about grammar and style than content, although more recent translations are somewhat easier to read. If you want punchy style and readability, I recommend Parks or Wooton. If you want literality, chose Mansfield or Connell. If you want something in between, choose Constantine or Bondanella.
The Prince with Related Documents, translated by William Connell, St. Martin’s Press, USA, 2005. Includes letters and essays about Machiavelli and The Prince, plus an excellent introductory essay on the problems of translation. Includes a selection from Cardinal Pole’s Apology to Charles V, as well as other documents reacting to The Prince.
The Discourses, translated by Leslie Walker, edited and introduction by Bernard Crick, Penguin Classics, London, England, 2003. I also have the translation by Christian Detmold (Modern Library, New York, USA, 1950 and a translation by Julia and Peter Bondanella (Oxford University Press, London, 2009)
The Portable Machiavelli, edited and translated by Peter Bondanella and Mark Musa, Penguin Books, Middlesex, England, 1979. Includes the complete text of The Prince, plus abridgements of The Discourses, The Art of War, The History of Florence, with several letters, plays and essays.
The Essential Writings of Machiavelli, ed. by Peter Constantine, Modern Library, New York, USA, 2007. Contains The Prince, selections from The Discourses, Art of War and Florentine Histories, plus several political essays, poems and plays. Contains the same translation of The Prince as in the standalone 2008 Modern Library edition.
The Art of War, translated by Christopher Lynch, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA, 2005. Machiavelli uses a Socratic-style dialogue to explain military arts, and the relationship between war and the state.
The Letters of Machiavelli, translated by Allan Gilbert, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA, 1988. Letters sent to friends, family and his political bosses.
On Conspiracies: A Dead Man Cannot Contemplate Vengeance, translated by Leslie Walker. Seven chapters taken from the Penguin edition of The Discourses, mentioned above, but without commentary.
Power: Get It, Use It, Keep It, introduced by Jeremy Scott, Profile Books, London, UK, 2001. Maxims selected from a 1674 translation of The Prince.
History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy, translated by Walter Dunne (1901), Harper Torchbooks, New York, USA, 1960.
The Prince and Other Writings, translated by Wayne Rebhorn, Barnes & Noble Classics, new York, USA, 2003. Includes the Life of Castruccio Castracani, the famous letter to Franceso Vettori, and a few selections from The Discourses.
Books about Machiavelli, His Ideas and His Time
Niccolò’s Smile: A Biography of Machiavelli, by Maurizio Viroli, Hill and Wang, New York, USA, 2000. An entertaining, insightful biography.
How to Read Machiavelli, by Maurizio Viroli, Granta Publications, London, UK, 2008.
Machiavelli: Philosopher of Power, by Ross King, Harper Collins, New York, USA, 2007. A more recent biography. Highly readable.
Machiavelli: A Brief Insight, by Quentin Skinner, Sterling Publishing, New York, USA, 2010. An illustrated biography with an overview of his works and philosophy.
Management and Machiavelli, by Antony Jay, Pelican Books, Middlesex, England, 1970.
Machiavelli’s Ethics, by Erica Brenner, Princeton University press, New Jersey, USA, 2009. A very detailed examination of Machiavelli’s works and philosophy.
What Would Machiavelli Do? The End Justifies the Meanness, by Stanley Bing, Harper Collins, new York, USA, 2000. A tongue-in-cheek application of selected principles from Machiavelli’s The Prince to business and management affairs.
The New Prince, by Dick Morris, Renaissance Books, Los Angeles, USA, 1999. Machiavelli revisited by a former campaigner for US President Bill Clinton, with specific relevance to American federal politics.
The Modern Prince: What Leaders Need to Know Now, by Carnes Lord, Yale University Press, New Haven, USA, 2003. A look at international political leadership through Machiavelli’s principles by a professor of strategy at the Naval War College.
Machiavelli’s Virtue, by Harvey Mansfield, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA, 1998. A collection of scholarly essays by Mansfield.
The Cambridge Companion to Machiavelli, ed. By John Najemy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2010. A collection of scholarly essays on many subjects related to Machiavelli and the Renaissance by several contemporary authors.
Socrates Meets Machiavelli: The Father of Philosophy Cross-Examines the Author of The Prince, by Peter Kreeft, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, USA, 2003. An imagined dialogue between the two philosophers.
Taming the Prince: The Ambivalence of Modern Executive Power, by Harvey Mansfield, Jr., Johns Hopkins University Press, USA, 1993. An assessment of executive power and modern republicanism.
Machiavelli on Modern Leadership: Why Machiavelli’s Iron Rules are as Timely and Important Today as Five Centuries Ago, by Michael Ledeen, St. Martin’s Griffin, USA, 2000. An analysis of contemporary American political issues through a Machiavellian lense.
The Life of Niccolò Machiavelli, by Roberto Ridolfi, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA, 1963. Still considered to be the most comprehensive biography available, but out of print.
The New Machiavelli: Renaissance Realpolitik for Modern Managers, by Alistair McAlpine, Aurum Press, London, UK, 1997. Not to be confused with the H. G. Wells’ novel of the same name.
Machiavelli in 90 Minutes, by Paul Strathern, Ivan R. Dee, Chicago, USA, 1998.
An Unlikely Prince: The Life and Times of Machiavelli, by Niccolò Capponi, Da Capo Press, Philadelphia, USA, 2010. A very recent biography.
The Machiavellian Enterprise: A Commentary on The Prince, by Leo Paul de Alvarez, North Illinois University Press, DeKalb, USA, 1999. A chapter-by-chapter analysis of The Prince by a professor of political science, based on his own translation (Waveland Press, 1989).
Machiavelli (Founders of Modern Political and Social Thought series), by Mauricio Viroli, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 1998.
Machiavelli: Beginner’s Guide, by Cary Nederman, Oneworld Publications, Oxford, UK, 2009. A sympathetic look at Machiavelli’s ideas, works and his beliefs.
Count Carlo Sforza presents The Living Thoughts of Machiavelli, Fawcett World Library, Greenwich, CT, USA, 1958. A selection of comments from The Discourses. Has a good introduction by Sforza.
Machiavelli: A Dissection, by Sydney Anglo, Paladin, London, UK, 1971.
Machiavelli: A Man Misunderstood, Michael White, Abacus Books, London, UK, 2004.
Niccolo Machiavelli: An Intellectual Biography, by Corrado Vivanti, Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA, 2013. Vivanti was the editor of the standard edition of Machiavelli’s collected works.
All of Machiavelli’s main works are available online in readable text format, some also as audiobooks, or PDF files. I also recommend you buy a printed version of at least The Prince and The Discourses for your own reference, from the selection listed above.
Machiavelli on the Net lists the main works and online resources here: timoroso.com/philosophy/machiavelli/
For all of Machiavelli’s works in their original Italian, see www.classicitaliani.it/index090.htm. The original version of The Prince is here: www.classicitaliani.it/index007.htm while a translation into modern Italian is here: www.classicitaliani.it/machiav/critica/Pricipe_traduzione_Bonghi.htm. Original Italian versions are also available here: www.bibliotecaitaliana.it/xtf/view?docId=bibit000214/bibit000214.xml and here: www.bibliotecaitaliana.it/exist/bibit/ (type Machiavelli in the ‘autore’ field). And many are available at the Italian edition of Wikisoucre: it.wikisource.org/wiki/Autore:Niccol%C3%B2_Machiavelli
Wikipedia has a good biography: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niccolò_Machiavelli that links to pages about his works.
E-Machiavelli has some essays, translations and links: www.emachiavelli.com/
Don MacDonald has an excellent biography of Machiavelli in graphic novel form at donmacdonald.com/
Isaiah Berlin’s excellent article about Machiavelli in the New York Times, 1971, is online at www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1971/nov/04/a-special-supplement-the-question-of-machiavelli/ Anyone interested in the changing historical views of The Prince should read it.
A well-annotated version of The Prince by Maarten Maartensz with considerable notes and commentary (with particular emphasis on Dutch politics) is available at: http://maartens.home.xs4all.nl/philosophy/machiavelli,/machiavelliPrinceTOC.htm
Many 19th and early 20th century books about Machiavelli, or translations of his works, are available in PDF, text and other formats at the Internet Archive: archive.org.
A downloadable version of The Prince, Marriott translation, is available at www.gutenberg.org, along with other works by Machiavelli, including The Life Of Castruccio Castracani Of Lucca, and Description Of The Methods Adopted By The Duke Valentino. I quote from the public domain version, translated by Ninian Hill Thomson, 1883, from www.gutenberg.org (2004), although I edited the quotations for clarity and modernity. The Ninian Hill translation is also available online.
The Prince and The Discourses are also on constitution.org.
Shorter works of Machiavelli’s, plus The Prince, and quotes from The Discourses are available at anewdayoutreach.com/machiavelli.htm
Free audiobook versions of The Prince (Marriott) are available online at http://www.booksshouldbefree.com/book/the-prince-by-Niccolò-machiavelli and from librivox.org/the-prince-by-Niccolò-machiavelli/
An excellent audio course in 24 lectures, called Machiavelli in Context, is available for sale from www.thegreatcourses.com
A good essay on the various translations and edition of Machiavelli’s works, with links to online sources is here: http://bonaelitterae.wordpress.com/studying-machiavelli/the-real-machiavelli/
There are numerous books by and about Machiavelli available, in whole or part, for viewing on Google books.The Online Library of Liberty has several older translations of Machiavelli (oll.libertyfund.org/index.php) as does the Internet Archive (www.archive.org); these include some of the earliest English translations.
The list of Robert Greene’s 48 Law of Power and 33 Strategies of War are on Wikipedia. Greene has a blog about his books and related topics at powerseductionandwar.com
Squashed Philosophers gives a shortened version of The Prince, meant to be read in under one hour: sqapo.com/machiavelli.htm
Was The Prince written as a satire? Ian Johnston thinks so, and explains why in this lecture: records.viu.ca/~Johnstoi/introser/machiavelli.htm
The Machiavelli Blog has some good content, but has not been updated for a while: www.machiavelliblog.org/
Cary Nederman (author of Machiavelli: Beginner’s Guide) has a comprehensive entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy about Machiavelli here: plato.stanford.edu/entries/machiavelli/
Harvey Mansfield has a site with references to his numerous articles and books on Machiavelli at harveymansfield.org/tag/machiavelli/
Niccolo Machiavelli’s famous letter to his friend, Francesco Vettori (1513) is available online in several places, including faculty.cua.edu/pennington/churchhistory220/Lecture13/MachiavelliStudy.htm, www.fullposter.com/snippets.php?snippet=120&start=200&ordertype=0&cat=0 (Italian and English), and http://delong.typepad.com/hoisted_from_the_archives/1513/12/letter-from-nic.html. A study of the letter is available here: www.nla.gov.au/sites/default/files/hw_transcripts__290212.pdf
The 48 Laws of Power, by Robert Greene, Penguin Books, New York, USA, 2000. An excellent synthesis of many classic and modern works on politics, leadership, war, power and statecraft, including Machiavelli. Probably the best single work on gaining and maintaining power, on leadership and management, since The Prince.
The 33 Strategies of War, by Robert Greene, Penguin Books, New York, USA, 2008. Greene’s second book is to Sun Tzu what his first book was to Machiavelli.
The Art of War, by Sun Tzu, translated by Samuel B. Griffith, Oxford University Press, London, England, 1971. Also available in a modern edition translated by J. H. Huang, (Harper Perennial, New York, USA, 2008). Various versions of the Lionel Giles translation (1910, now in the public domain) are in print, and at suntzusaid.com, www.gutenberg.org, and www.sonshi.com.
Han Fei Tzu: Basic Writings, translated by Burton Watson, Columbia University Press, New York, USA, 1964. Han Fei was a 3rd century BCE Chinese prince from the legalist school of philosophy. His handbook for rulers was a practical guide for Chinese rulers similar to The Prince. Few of his writings are available in translation, although you can find some chapters (along with other Chinese treatises on rulers, government and war) here: afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/ps/ps_china.htm.
The Politics, by Aristotle, translated by T. A. Sinclair, Penguin Classics, London, England, 1992. Aristotle’s work was the premier book of political science in Machiavelli’s day. Plato’s Republic was also studied by princes and scholars. Versions of both are available online.
How to Win an Election: An Ancient Guide for Modern Politicians, by Quintus Tullius Cicero, translated by Philip Freeman, Princeton University press, Princeton, USA, 2012. Lessons in politics and electioneering from Marcus Cicero’s younger brother.
Commentariolum Petitionis (“A Little Handbook on Electioneering”) is also known as De petitione consulatus (“On running for the Consulship”). An English translation of Cicero’s essay is available at en.wikisource.org.
Master Sorai’s Responsals, by Ogyu Sorai, translated by Samuel H. Yamashita, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, USA, 1994. This book is to 18th century Japan what The Prince was to Renaissance Italy, although it has more on manners than Machiavelli.
A Machiavellian Treatise, by Stephen Gardiner, ed. and translated by Peter Donaldson, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 1975. A 1555 treatise on politics by Queen Mary’s Bishop of Winchester. He uses unattributed content from Machiavelli’s The Prince and The Discourses.
The Rules of Victory: How to Transform Chaos and Conflict; Strategies from The Art of War, by James Gimian and Barry Boyce, Shambala Publications, Boston, USA, 2008.
The Basic Works of Cicero, edited by Moses Hadas, Modern Library, New York, USA, 1951. Contains Cicero’s essay on orators and rhetoric, De Oratore.
The Essays, or Counsels Civil and Moral, of Francis Ld. Verulam, by Francis Bacon, Peter Pauper Press, Mount Bernon, New York, USA. Original published in 1950, reprinted 1950.
The New Art of War, Tactics and Power: A New Rendition of Teachings from Sun Tzu’s The Art of War, Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince, Baltasar Gracian’s The Art of Worldly Wisdom, and the Works of Han Fei Tzu, by Rodney Ohebsion, Immediex Publishing, United States, 2005. Lacks any reference to the source versions of the original material.
The Man of the Renaissance: Four Lawgivers: Savonarola, Machiavelli, Castiglione, Aretino, by Ralph Roeder, Viking Press, New York, USA, 1933.
The Art of Worldly Wisdom, by Balthasar Gracian. Original title: Oráculo manual y arte de prudencia (literally The Oracle, a Manual of the Art of Discretion). Translated by Christopher Maurer (Doubleday Books, New York, USA, 1991), translated by Martin Fischer (Barnes & Noble Books, New York, USA, 1993), translated by Joseph Jacobs (Dover Books, New York, USA, 2005, originally translated in 1892). This collection of 300 aphorisms was first published in 1637. Many versions in print and online stem from the 1892 translation. It is described in a review on Amazon.ca as “Machiavelli with a soul.” A searchable text version can be found at www.online-literature.com/gracian/art-worldly-wisdom/ and here: www.sacred-texts.com/eso/aww/index.htm . A PDF is here: www.andrewburke.ca/ajlb/viewBlogEntry.php?ref=213 Gracian also wrote “Heroes,” around the same time; a counter argument against Machiavelli, outlining what he felt was the proper behaviour for a Christian prince. A partial translation is available in A Pocket Mirror for Heroes, translated by Christopher Maurer, Doubleday Books, New York, USA, 1996.
April Blood: Florence and the Plot Against the Medici, by Lauro Martines, Pimilco, London, UK, 2004. While this happened before Machiavelli took office, it did set the stage for Florentine politics of his day. The book also relates several other conspiracies in Italy during the period.
Vendetta: High Art and Low Cunning at the Birth of the Renaissance, by Hugh Bicheno, Phoenix Books, London, UK, 2007.
Magnifico: The Brilliant Life and Violent Times of Lorenzo de Medici, by Miles Unger, Simon & Schuster, New York, USA, 2008.
The Lost Battles: Leonardo, Michelangelo and the Artistic Duel that Defined the Renaissance, by Jonathan Jones, Simon & Shuster, London, UK, 2010. While not specifically about Machiavelli, it does describe Florence during Machiavelli’s time.
The Worst-Case Scenario Almanac: Politics, by David Borgenicht & Turk Regan, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, USA, 2008. Not specifically about Machiavelli, it nonetheless has many Machiavellian politicians in its content.
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